Pregnant: What now changes in the job
If the pregnancy test is positive, it must also be in the job much to be clarified. When and how it should find the boss, what activities must avoid a pregnant woman, how many breaks are allowed, how much maternity benefit the expectant mother is entitled to, you read it here.
Pregnancy when to tell the employer?
Photo: © iStockphoto.com/ deanm1974
There is no legal deadline by which a woman must inform her boss or her boss that she is pregnant. Here you can weigh yourself: Who said it earlier, can also take the earlier rights claim offered by the Maternity Protection Act. On the other hand, the first twelve weeks of pregnancy are the most uncertain. And even if most everything goes well: the boss perhaps something as having to inform intimate, like a miscarriage suffered, is not a pleasant thought. A good compromise may be, therefore, to inform him after the first three months.
but who has a job that involves risks, such as in handling chemicals, professions in the construction or operation of certain machines, the boss should very early report from pregnancy to immediately take the rights of the Maternity Protection Act claim and and to protect unborn.
But even employees without risk job should not wait forever to tell the boss - of Fairness: Even the manager needs time to think about who might already during pregnancy, but in any case during maternity leave and perhaps in parental leave the duties of the woman accepts partially or completely.
What the manager wants to know now
The employer should be as the first to learn of the pregnancy. Also dear colleagues or colleagues do not always close, and one should not wait until the boss learns through other channels. It is also important not to tell on the wing, but to ask the boss, when he has time to talk. On this one should be well prepared. Thus, signals that you do not think: "After me, the deluge", but that one the interests of the company are important. You should be able to tell the boss
- when the estimated date of birth is
- date on which the maternity leave period begins (six weeks before birth)
- if you still have remaining leave (and if so, how much), which you would like to add before or after birth maternity protection period
- how long to take the maternity leave after the birth, whether to accept (eight weeks after birth) or parental leave or parental leave so only maternity protection and when you want to re-enter
- if you want to then work full or part time
- what projects and tasks you want to make finished until the beginning of maternity leave (short overview)
- who could take their own responsibilities during maternity leave and the possible parental leave
It's not about ultimate determinations, but to a rough plan, which may change again depending on the course of pregnancy or after birth. And even if he is subject anyway here a confidentiality: Experience shows that it makes sense to ask the boss again to secrecy until you yourself told colleagues of pregnancy.
What a pregnant woman should not now
Has the pregnant woman informs the employer, it can immediately take the rights claim with which the Maternity Protection Act protects pregnant women and her baby. For as soon as the employer found out about the pregnancy, he must report it to the Labor Inspectorate and comply with the security rules.
The allowed pregnant women, according to the Maternity Protection Act Not:
- make work that is associated with increased risk of accidents (slipping, falling, crashing) as such as on building sites or when dealing with certain machines
- with toxic or radioactive materials (including X-rays above certain limits) or pathogens (laboratory, spec. hospital areas) deal, working under very noisy, extreme heat or cold and strong shocks
- regularly lifting loads or carry heavier than five kilograms; or raise in some cases loads that are more than ten kilos
- from the fifth month (21 week) are more than four hours (eg. as behind the counter)
- stretch very often, bend, bend, stretch or conductors (z. B. in the warehouse) work
- work after the third month in means of transport such as buses, taxis, airplanes, either as a driver or as control urine or stewardess
- work on the assembly line of a given performance or piecework
- work after 20 pm or before 6 am or work on Sundays and holidays
- longer than 8.5 hours a day or 90 hours inh. work two weeks
If a woman has been executed such work, the employer must assign a different task. In this case, the payment must not deteriorate and does not descend the woman in the company hierarchy. As a train conductor can be used at the station, who has worked on the night shift, can change an X-ray assistant to the normal station in the day shift.
For exceptions you need the green light from the doctor
Finding the employer no new location, he must indemnify the pregnant woman - on full pay. Some employers are pushing here their employees to take sick leave. Because then they have to pay the salary of only six weeks, after which the insurance company jumps. Then you should not get involved, because it is unlawful for a, on the other hand, the sick pay is often only about 70 percent of income.
Pregnant women who feel fit enough, but allowed some rights - voluntarily give - such as the exemption of assembly line work or night work. But for that they need the consent of the doctor and the works council. If these before, the employer must apply for the abrogation of the exemption to the supervisory authority.
Some industries have different rules
In some professions, there are exceptions from the outset. So a pregnant woman may work in catering to 22 PM. This also applies to the so-called accommodation beings (hotels, retirement homes, hostels and. The like.). In agriculture may be started from five in the morning (milking). Artists should be on stage until 23 o'clock.
For the carriage operations (after 3 months but not as a driver), in pubs, the accommodation being in hospitals, nursing homes and baths as well as (in the cultural sector concerts, theater: for the ban on Sunday and holiday work other guidelines apply in some industries , television) can also work on Sundays pregnant. but the employer must grant compensation for it during the week.
What about the maternity leave if the child comes before?
In general should not be employed during a woman's maternity leave, unless they expressly declare themselves willing to do; this declaration may at any time be revoked.
The maternity leave starting six weeks before delivery and ends eight weeks after the birth of the baby. If the baby is earlier than expected, such. As in premature births, the maternity leave period is extended after birth to the dates could not be taken before childbirth.
How can you put your feet often?
Pregnant women must not take more breaks than other employees also noisy Maternity Protection Act. You have the usual right to a 30 minute break at a working time of more than six to nine hours. The pause can be divided into time periods of at least 15 minutes. For more than six hours at a time should not be employed without respite. but who must sit constantly in pregnancy may work often briefly interrupt (stand up, walk around, short legs up store).
The Maternity Protection Act does not apply to self-employed, managing directors, freelance work or students. Also for civil own rules apply to civil service law.
Pregnancy: If the boss does not adhere to the law
"I am now in the 14th week. Since I told my boss two weeks ago that I am pregnant, it behaves very aggressively towards me, "complains a pregnant Userin in an online forum. "When I had to twice to the bathroom in three hours, she has it entered me an unpaid break. They said I was too often on the toilet. "" I'm in the fifth month. My boss lets me lift heavy, I have to work even on holidays and also work overtime, "says another user. "My doctor has my boss now threatened with a ban on employment and only once on sick leave me a week. As I reported sick, my boss took me slain: how do I introduce myself then, and I would assume that he is now considering something. I'm scared of what was coming up on me. "
it if the supervisor does not adhere to the Maternity Protection Act or harassed a pregnant woman should not accept this. For now, she has responsibility not only for themselves but also for the unborn child and his health. Those who work in large companies, may appeal to the council. Helps not or is there not, you can contact the Office of Occupational Safety, which is available in many major cities. In some states it is also the Ministry for Social and Family Health, which advises pregnant women here, or labor inspectorates. If you are unsure you can call shortly before the competent labor inspectorate and ask which institution will help in their own region.
Protection against dismissal during pregnancy
Once the employer officially learns of the pregnancy enters into force dismissal. Until the expiry of four months after childbirth a woman can not be dismissed. Who has noticed the pregnancy until after termination, but at the time of termination was already pregnant, has two weeks to notify the employer. The protection against dismissal then retroactively. It also applies during the trial period. However, if you have a fixed-term contract at its maturity does not change. So he ends up pregnant or on maternity leave, the employer does not have to extend it.
Rules for medical appointments
Pregnant women are medical appointments during working perceive (and have the time needed to do not rework). But in order to safely avoid disputes with the employer, they should only do so if an appointment outside of working hours is not possible, this however. This is true if you work mainly part-time. An exception are the so-called "terminlich bound visits": If you want, for example, appear morning fasting in the doctor's office and therefore no other time is possible." Of course, a pregnant woman can also go to the doctor during working hours when she gets complaints or bleeding.
What is the maternity benefit?
Once the maternity leave period begins (six weeks before and eight weeks after delivery) get pregnant by the health insurance maternity benefit amounting to a maximum of 13 euros per working day - if they are insured with a statutory health insurance. The employer increased this maternity pay up to the amount of net salary. This increase is calculated from the average net salary of the last three months - counting overtime. But is the average salary below 390 euros (as with some trainees), only the insurance company pays.
Mini-jobbers do not receive maternity benefits from the health insurance, because they usually do not pay their own contributions but are covered under the family insurance. Housewives also get no maternity benefits.
Privately insured and mini-jobbers can get one-time payment
Private health insurance companies do not pay maternity benefits. Who is privately insured, the employer gets his net salary minus the 13 euros per working day, which would otherwise have taken over the public health insurance. But members of a private health insurance can be a one-time maternity allowance in the amount of up to EUR 210 apply to the Federal Insurance Office (www.bva.de). Even those who exercise only a so-called. Minijob or is engaged in homework, this one-time payment received from the Federal Insurance Office of 210 EUR if it is private or family insured under the statutory health insurance. In addition, the Federal Labor Agency or the social welfare office can issue vouchers for this payment.
Independently and pregnant
Who is voluntary members of the statutory health insurance as a self-employed, do not get a maternity or sick pay during the maternity period. but this is still possible, if previously the "optional rate sick pay" has been completed (includes maternity benefits with one), or if the (higher) standard amount is paid by compulsorily insured. Both have the woman but have set contractually against pregnancy.
however, many private health insurance companies exclude maternity or sick pay from the outset, but some pay a one-time maternity allowance of about 200 euros. Privately insured women must continue to pay their health insurance contributions during maternity period and parental leave. Some private funds assure mothers but in the first six months after birth contributions.
Device is a self-employed during pregnancy in financial difficulties, they should make a request for assistance in special circumstances the social office. This assistance applies only to the livelihood, there are no subsidies for their company, so for rent, electricity, telephone and salaries.
Early consider how to proceed after childbirth
At the latest during maternity leave a woman must also think about whether they want to take parental leave (max. Three years) or parental leave after the birth of her child. Because both must be requested from the employer and also set in duration to six weeks before the end of maternity leave (up to two weeks after birth so).
- Text of the Maternity Protection Act: www.gesetze-im-internet.de
- Homepage of the maternity allowance instead of the Federal Insurance Office: www.mutterschaftsgeld.de (application forms for one-time payment of 210 EUR)
- Katrin Koll Prakoonwit: "Pregnant! And what I do with my job? From the well-planned exit to the successful reintegration ", Bertelsmann, ISBN-13: 978-3763935062